This paper addresses recent technological advances for both cobalt- and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis catalysts. FT technology converts syngas into clean, synthetic liquid fuels by using abundant sources such as coal, biomass and natural gas. We provide an overview of the latest patent literature and summarize improvements in catalyst design and chemical promotion through the addition of active metals and structural supports as well as different methods for catalyst preparation and activation. We also discuss developments in reactor configuration and upstream and downstream design, and investigate the different application scenarios for both iron and cobalt catalysts. Significant progress has been realized in the past decade, evidenced by an increased number of patents focusing on catalyst and reactor advances and their effect on increasing catalyst activity and product yield and selectivity. The process can be carried out in large-scale units such as slurry bubble columns or fluidized-bed reactors, or in small compact microchannel reactor units. Combining the FT catalyst and reactor technology with innovative ways for syngas production and product upgrading to produce ready-to-use fuels results in a versatile FT technology that can be remotely applied on land or sea. This versatility can provide a long-term solution to counter the persistent increase in crude oil prices and can dramatically impact the competency and economical production of fuels worldwide.
The present work reviews the results, obtained by numerical examination of the space and time behavior of ion charges in electrolytic cell when external electric field is applied. The basic governing equations for free ions have been generalized for ion-pairs, the simple boundary conditions for blocking electrodes are generalized taking into account the charge transfer currents at the electrodes, the equilibrium Einstein-Nernst relation between ion mobility and diffusivity is modified to take into account the transient, non-equilibrium processes. All these problems are tackled with the help of a common numerical algorithm applied in both linear and nonlinear approximation. Special attention is attributed to nonlinear processes, to thin cells with nano-scaled inter-electrode gap, to non-equilibrium states and their relaxation to equilibrium, to the enhancement of the interface electrode polarization and capacity by charge pump through a complementary electrode etc. Recent patents concerning electrochemical cells and super-capacitors have also been shortly reviewed.
The present review focuses on the patented synthetic methods and numerous pharmaceutical applications of 1,4-dihydropyridines. They were originally prepared by the Hantzsch multicomponent reaction, but nowadays there are several new methods. They have improved reaction yield and have reduced the risks of contaminating the environment. These improvements were achieved through the use of different catalytic systems, a variety of reaction solvents, and also some reactions were carried out without either catalyst or reaction solvent.
Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand, environmental concerns, and to its relatively low price. Highly porous carbonaceous materials are excellent adsorbents for natural gas and thus play an important role in the technology of adsorbed natural gas storage. This paper reviews various recent patents related to methane storage, particularly carbon adsorbent preparations for methane storage.
Molecular iodine has established itself as an efficient catalyst in organic synthesis to attain several organic transformations. Domino reactions involve the synthesis of a target molecule in a single step where three or more components are reacting simultaneously. Thus these types of domino reactions are carried out in the presence of iodine as a catalyst. They have more significance and are fascinating in organic synthesis. The use of molecular iodine as catalyst in various domino reactions along with the recent patents is discussed in this review.
During recent years, olefin metathesis has gained a position of increasing significance, attracting a vast amount of interest both in industry and academia. The initial success of olefin metathesis has spurred the intense investigation of new catalysts for this transformation. In the context of the huge advances in transition metal complexes, a good number of metal complexes have been employed as metathesis catalysts. The chemists most responsible for developing such catalysts are Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock. Olefin metathesis was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2005 for Chauvin, Grubbs and Schrock. This mini review article includes recent patents on catalysts used for olefin metathesis.