Solar selective absorber materials have been the focus of much research and development over the last 60 years as the functionality of solar thermal collection devices relies considerably on these coatings and their operation and deposition specifications are complex. This article reviews the solar selective absorber coatings which have been patented and covers a wide variety of materials and techniques including metal/ceramic composites (cermets), semiconductors, paint coatings, electroplating and vapour deposition processes. The cermet class of materials has emerged as the most utilised with the recent selective coatings based on nanoscale particulates. As the operating temperatures in solar devices increases so demands on reliability, thermal stability and durability continue to grow. Furthermore, there is pressure to reduce costs and the advances in nanoscale technologies and thin film deposition seem to offer the greatest potential for new selective coatings.
Ennoblement, a positive shift in corrosion potential, due to biofilm formation is the basis of patents for biofilm monitoring and power generating devices. Ennoblement is a global phenomenon that is routinely cited as a mechanism for microbiologically influenced corrosion of some passive alloys. Increased corrosion is attributed to acceleration of the oxygen reduction reaction via several potential mechanisms that have been debated for decades. Because the phenomenon is predictable and reproducible at specific locations, ennoblement is the basis for patented methods and devices for monitoring biofilm formation and relating ennobled potentials to increased likelihood of corrosion and for evaluating cleaning and biocide treatments. Furthermore, when anodes and cathodes can be separated, as in a microbial fuel cell, biofilm formation on the cathode increases the potential difference between the two and the resulting power output. Most patented fuel cells using metal cathodes do not refer specifically to ennoblement in the disclosures.
This patent review analyzes the state of the developments related to getter films intended for vacuum opto- and microelectronics. With current production technology, high hermiticity of the packages and high sorption efficiency of the getter films cannot be achieved simultaneously. A new classification of getter films is suggested in this paper, prompting a new approach to the problems associated with vacuum for small sealed-off chambers. An acceptable price-reliability ratio of vacuum devices can be obtained by combining low temperature (not higher than 150°C) sealing methods with reactive getter films that have high sorption capacity.
In this review, we outline the most recent publications and patents focusing on hybrid micellar aggregates comprising nanoparticles (NPs) and block copolymers (BCPs) in the last decade, which have attracted much interest owing to their potential applications in the fields of optics, electronics, sensors, drug delivery and release, bioimaging, targeting, and catalysis. Among them, precise location and assembly of NPs in polymers are of great importance in realizing the formation of nanocomposites with high performances. BCPs assembly offers a simple and efficient route to direct and locate NPs in polymer matrix. First, we will outline different synthetic strategies for directing inorganic NPs into the micellar aggregates based on co-assembly of NPs and BCPs. We will then discuss principles and possible mechanisms for precisely regulating NPs in polymer microdomains of BCPs based on the experimental and theoretical results. Potential applications of the hybrid micellar aggregates will finally be discussed, followed by current and future developments of this emerging area.
Compared to oxide-based glasses, vitreous materials involving chalcogens form a rather new family of glasses which have gained attention, mainly because of their transmission in the mid-infrared. Indeed as low phonon compounds, these heavy-anion glasses allow the fabrication of molded optics for infrared cameras as well as infrared fibers operating in a large spectral range. These waveguides, when correctly tapered, allow the development of a new generation of sensitive evanescent-wave optical sensors which have been used for various applications. A review of some new patents of chalcogenide glasses and the current status of their applications is given. Chalcogenide glasses have been intensively studied in the 70’s of twentieth century as the important new class of promising high-tech materials for semiconducting devices and infrared optics. The present review highlights the recent developments made over the last five years in chalcogenide glasses for their applicability in different areas. Here, we will focus on the numerous applications of fibers of chalcogenide glass which include laser power delivery, chemical sensing, environmental monitoring etc.
This article mainly reviews our recent studies on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene /poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) thin films which posses a high conductivity and a high transparency. The highly conductive thin films are potentially utilized to flexible touchscreens as organic transparent electrodes. The review also includes recent patents on PEDOT/PSS thin films.